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Ingredients

    Happy Tuesdays have been formulated with those who are conscious about what they are putting in their bodies in mind. A lot of care and attention has been put into choosing and sourcing well-researched, high quality nutrients in forms that are particularly effective or well-absorbed by the body.

    Each sachet contains 4 formulations served across 5 pills which are designed to:
    • support relaxation and stress-relief
    • relax the mind
    • support serotonin production which supports mood and sleep
    • support liver function
    Here are detailed notes from our in-house nutritionist around the formulations and the scientific research that supports the inclusion of each ingredient in our 4 formulations: Rebalance, Reboot, Release and Restore.

    Any health claims made about ingredients are backed by the European Food Safety Authority.


    Scientific research is constantly evolving. We continually review the latest findings. Have a study you think we should take a look at? Please send it our way.

    Rebalance

    A comprehensive active blend of nutrients to support neurocognition and optimal brain health. It is designed to support mental performance, functioning of nervous system, reduction of tiredness and raising serotonin in the brain supporting sleep, mood, anxiety and behaviour.


    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine, as Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate or P5P)

    Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate, or P5P as it is commonly known, is the active form of vitamin B6. In foods or most supplements, vitamin B6 is found in one of three forms: pyridoxine hydrochloride, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine. Inside the body, these forms of B6 must be converted by liver enzymes to the active form the body needs – P5P, hence the advantage of providing it “ready made”.

    Vitamin B6 is required for the metabolism and the creation of red blood cells and neurotransmitters. B6 has EFSA approved health claims for contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism, function of the nervous system, contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism, protein and glycogen metabolism, contribution to normal psychological functions, red blood cell formation, function of the immune system, and the reduction of tiredness and fatigue. In my clinical experience, vitamin B6 deficiency is widespread, particularly in people who have busy lifestyles. Low B6 impairs vitamin B12 absorption then having an effect on energy and mental performance.


    Supporting literature for Vitamin B6

    • Cheng, D., Kong, H., Pang, W., Yang, H., Lu, H., Huang, C. & Jiang, Y. (2016). B vitamin supplementation improves cognitive function in the middle aged and elderly with hyperhomocysteinemia. Nutr Neurosci, 19, 461-466.DOI:10.1179/1476830514y 0000000136
    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2009). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B6 and protein and glycogen metabolism (ID 65, 70, 71), function of the nervous system (ID 66), red blood cell formation (ID 67, 72, 186), function of the immune system (ID 68), regulation of hormonal activity (ID 69) and mental performance (ID 185) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 7, 1225-n/a.DOI:10.2903/j.efsa. 2009.1225 Hughes, C. F., Ward, M., Tracey, F., Hoey, L., Molloy, A. M., Pentieva, K. & Mcnulty, H. (2017). B Vitamin Intake and Biomarker Status in Relation to Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults in a 4-Year Follow-Up Study. Nutrients, 9.DOI:10.3390/nu9010053
    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2010). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B6 and contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism (ID 73, 76, 199), maintenance of normal bone (ID 74), maintenance of normal teeth (ID 74), maintenance of normal hair (ID 74), maintenance of normal skin (ID 74), maintenance of normal nails (ID 74), contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism (ID 75, 214), contribution to normal psychological functions (ID 77), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 78), and contribution to normal cysteine synthesis (ID 4283) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 8, 1759-n/a.DOI:10.2903/j.efsa. 2010.1759
    • Ramakrishna, T. (1999). Vitamins and brain development. Physiol Res, 48, 175-87

    Vitamin B3 as Niacinamide

    Vitamin B3 or niacin is one of the B vitamin group members that’s essential for energy metabolism. In fact, EFSA has approved health claims for its contribution to normal energy yielding metabolism, function of the nervous system, contribution to normal psychological functions, red blood cell formation, function of the immune system, and the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

    Supporting literature for Vitamin B3

    • Annweiler, C. (2016). Vitamin D in dementia prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1367, 57-63.DOI:10.1111/nyas.13058 Annweiler, C., Herrmann, F. R., Fantino, B., Brugg, B. & Beauchet, O. (2012).
    • Effectiveness of the combination of memantine plus vitamin D on cognition in patients with Alzheimer disease: a pre-post pilot study. Cogn Behav Neurol, 25,121-7.DOI:10.1097/WNN.0b013e31826df647
    • Banerjee, A., Khemka, V. K., Ganguly, A., Roy, D., Ganguly, U. & Chakrabarti, S. (2015). Vitamin D and Alzheimer's Disease: Neurocognition to Therapeutics. Int J Alzheimers Dis, 2015, 192747.DOI:10.1155/2015/192747
    • Sommer, I., Griebler, U., Kien, C., Auer, S., Klerings, I., Hammer, R., Holzer, P. & Gartlehner, G. (2017). Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr, 17, 16.DOI:10.1186/ s12877-016-0405-0

    Curcumin

    Turmeric has been used as a spice and a medicinal herb. The compounds in Turmeric are called curcuminoids, the most important of which is curcumin.

    It is an anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant. Curcumin can suppress many molecules known to play major roles in inflammation. It is also known to improve brain function through increasing levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Supporting Literature for Curcumin 

    • Sarraf, P., Parohan, M., Javanbakht, M., Ranji-Burachaloo, S. and Djalali, M. (2019). Short-term curcumin supplementation enhances serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult men and women: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition Research, 69, pp.1-8.

    Piperine

    Piperine is an extract of black pepper that helps enhance the bioavailability of oral food supplements, particularly of botanicals.

    Supporting Literature for Piperine

    • Meghwal, M. & Goswami, T. K. (2013). Piper nigrum and piperine: an update. Phytother Res, 27, 1121-30.DOI:10.1002/ptr.4972

    5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)

    5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is an amino acid that your body naturally produces. 5-HTP helps raise serotonin levels in the brain. Since serotonin helps regulate mood and behaviour, 5-HTP may have a positive effect on sleep, mood, anxiety, appetite, and pain sensation.

    Supporting Literature for 5-HTP

    • Jangid, P., Malik, P., Singh, P., Sharma, M. and Gulia, A. (2013). Comparative study of efficacy of l-5-hydroxytryptophan and fluoxetine in patients presenting with first depressive episode. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 6(1), pp.29-34.
    • Shaw, K., Turner, J. and Del Mar, C. (2002). Tryptophan and 5-Hydroxytryptophan for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    Reboot

    A blend for support focus, drive and motivation and energy production in the body. Vitamins B9 and B12 have EFSA health claim approvals for energy while L-tyrosine is supportive in dopamine production which can enhance focus and drive.


    Vitamin B9 (as L-methylfolate)

    Low folate levels are associated with cognitive impairment. A recent randomised controlled trial found long-term supplementation of daily oral 400μg folic acid + 100μg vitamin B12 promoted improvement in cognitive functioning in older adults with depressive symptoms, particularly in immediate and delayed memory performance.

    Additionally, folate carries the following, relevant EFSA-approved claims:

    • Contributes to normal psychological function
    • Contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue
    • Contributes to normal homocysteine metabolism

    Supporting literature for L-methylfolate

    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2010). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to folate and contribution to normal psychological functions (ID 81, 85, 86, 88), maintenance of normal vision (ID 83, 87), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 84), cell division (ID 195, 2881) and contribution to normal amino acid synthesis (ID 195, 2881) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 8, 1760-n/a.DOI:10.2903/j.efsa. 2010.1760
    • Michelakos, T., Kousoulis, A. A., Katsiardanis, K., Dessypris, N., Anastasiou, A., Katsiardani, K. P., Kanavidis, P., Stefanadis, C., Papadopoulos, F. C. & Petridou, E. T. (2013). Serum folate and B12 levels in association with cognitive impairment among seniors: results from the VELESTINO study in Greece and meta-analysis. J Aging Health, 25, 589-616.DOI:10.1177/0898264313482488
    • Scaglione, F. & Panzavolta, G. (2014). Folate, folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate are not the same thing. Xenobiotica, 44, 480-8.DOI:10.3109/00498254.2013.845705 Walker, J. G., Batterham, P. J., Mackinnon, A. J., Jorm, A. F., Hickie, I., Fenech, M., Kljakovic, M., Crisp, D. & Christensen, H. (2012).
    • Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms- the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 95, 194-203.DOI:10.3945/ajcn.110.007799


    Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin)

    Low serum vitamin B12 levels are associated with neurodegenerative disease and cognitive impairment. Additionally, vitamin B12 carries the following, EFSA approved claims:

    • Contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism
    • Contributes to normal functioning of the nervous system
    • Contributes to normal homocysteine metabolism
    • Contributes to normal psychological function
    • Contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue

    A methylated version of B12 provides a pre-digested form of the vitamin.

    Supporting literature for vitamin B12

    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2009). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B12 and red blood cell formation (ID 92, 101), cell division (ID 93), energy-yielding metabolism (ID 99, 190) and function of the immune system (ID 107) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 7, 1223-n/a.DOI:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1223
    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2010). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B12 and contribution to normal neurological and psychological functions (ID 95, 97, 98, 100, 102, 109), contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism (ID 96, 103, 106), maintenance of normal bone (ID 104), maintenance of normal teeth (ID 104), maintenance of normal hair (ID 104), maintenance of normal skin (ID 104), maintenance of normal nails (ID 104), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 108), and cell division (ID 212) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 8, 1756-n/a.DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1756
    • Moore, E., Mander, A., Ames, D., Carne, R., Sanders, K. & Watters, D. (2012). Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: a review. Int Psychogeriatr, 24, 541-56.DOI:10.1017s1041610211002511


    Iodine

    Iodine is another brain-essential nutrient, necessary for brain tissue development both in infants and adults. It carries EFSA-approved health claims related to contribution to normal cognitive and neurological function as well as contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism, both of which are appropriate for this product combination. A form that is highly bioavailable and inexpensive is potassium iodide. 

    Supporting literature for Iodine

    • Aridi, Y. S., Walker, J. L. & Wright, O. R. L. (2017). The Association between the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Cognitive Health: A Systematic Review. Nutrients, 9.DOI:10.3390/nu9070674
    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2010). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to iodine and contribution to normal cognitive and neurological function (ID 273), contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism (ID 402), and contribution to normal thyroid function and production of thyroid hormones (ID 1237) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 8, 1800-n/a.DOI:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1800
    • Redman, K., Ruffman, T., Fitzgerald, P. & Skeaff, S. (2016). Iodine Deficiency and the Brain: Effects and Mechanisms. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 56, 2695-713.DOI 10.1080/10408398.2014.922042


    Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic Acid

    Vitamin B5 is an important vitamin that helps your body make blood cells and convert food into energy. It also has a health claim that it contributes to normal mental performance and play a role in reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

    Supporting literature for Vitamin B5

    • Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to pantothenic acid and mental performance (ID 58), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 63), adrenal function (ID 204) and maintenance of normal skin (ID 2878) pursuant to Article 13(1). (2010). EFSA Journal, 8(10), p.1758.


    L-Tyrosine

    The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor to the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Increasing tyrosine uptake may positively influence catecholamine related psychological functioning. There is evidence that tyrosine may benefit healthy individuals exposed to demanding situational conditions. There is also evidence that tyrosine may benefit cognitive performance.

    Supporting literature for L-Tyrosine

    • Attipoe, S., Zeno, S. A., Lee, C., Crawford, C., Khorsan, R., Walter, A. R. & Deuster, P. A. (2015). Tyrosine for Mitigating Stress and Enhancing Performance in Healthy Adult Humans, a Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature. Mil Med, 180, 754-65.DOI 10.7205/milmed-d-14-00594
    • Hase, A., Jung, S. E. & Aan Het Rot, M. (2015). Behavioral and cognitive effects of tyrosine intake in healthy human adults. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 133, 1-6.DOI 10.1016/j.pbb.2015.03.008
    • Steenbergen, L., Sellaro, R., Hommel, B. & Colzato, L. S. (2015). Tyrosine promotes cognitive flexibility: evidence from proactive vs. reactive control during task switching performance. Neuropsychologia, 69, 50-5.DOI:10.1016/ j.neuropsychologia.2015.01.022

    Release

    A formula containing high quality and well-researched nutrients to support physical and mental relaxation in the body. The formula uses adaptogenic herbs to support the body’s stress response and magnesium to relax muscles and calm the nervous system.


    Magnesium (as Magnesium Glycinate)

    Magnesium has a number of health benefits including muscle relaxation properties and also plays a role in protection from psychosocial / psychological stress. Magnesium is key to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production by the mitochondria. ATP is the molecule that carries energy in our cells - think of it like energy currency. It is, in fact, one of the essential building blocks of ATP so contributes to normal psychological functions, and the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

    Glycine is also a well-known calming amino acid. This combination of magnesium and glycine has good bioavailability and does not have a laxative effect since glycine is actively transported through the intestinal wall. 

    Magnesium Glycinate is therefore used as this form is well absorbed and more gentle on the digestive system than other forms of magnesium.

    Supporting literature for Magnesium

    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2010). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to magnesium and “hormonal health” (ID 243), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 244), contribution to normal psychological functions (ID 245, 246), maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations (ID 342), maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 344, 366, 379), protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 351), maintenance of the normal function of the immune system (ID 352), maintenance of normal blood pressure during pregnancy (ID 367), resistance to mental stress (ID 375, 381), reduction of gastric acid levels (ID 376), maintenance of normal fat metabolism (ID 378) and maintenance of normal muscle contraction (ID 380, ID 3083) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 8, 1807-n/a.DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1807
    • DiSilvestro, R., Joseph, E., Starkoff, B. and Devor, S. (2001). Magnesium Glycinate Supplementation in Bariatric Surgery Patients and Physically Fit Young Adults | The FASEB Journal
    • Vink, R. (2016). Magnesium in the CNS: recent advances and developments. Magnes Res, 29, 95-101.DOI:10.1684/mrh.2016.0408


    Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera)

    Ashwagandha is an Ayurvedic herb, traditionally used as an adaptogen. Adaptogens can help your body adapt to life’s stressors. It is supplemented primarily for its ability to prevent anxiety. There’s also some evidence of its ability to relieve insomnia and stress-induced depression. Ashwagandha can significantly reduce cortisol concentrations and the immunosuppressive effect of stress, enhancing overall wellbeing.

    Supporting literature for Ashwagandha

    • Andrade, C., Aswath, A., Chaturvedi, S. K., Srinivasa, M. & Raguram, R. (2000). A doubleblind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the anxiolytic efficacy ff an ethanolic extract of withania somnifera. Indian J Psychiatry, 42, 295-301
    • Chandrasekhar, K., Kapoor, J. & Anishetty, S. (2012). A prospective, randomized doubleblind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med, 34, 255-62.DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.106022


    Rhodiola Rosea

    Rhodiola is a herb used traditionally in both Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine for its ability to promote physical and cognitive vitality. It appears to work as an adaptogen, helping to reduce fatigue and exhaustion resulting from exposure to prolonged stressful situations. Rhodiola is also neuroprotective and promotes neuroplasticity.

    Supporting literature for Rhodiola Rosea

    • Edwards, D., Heufelder, A. & Zimmermann, A. (2012). Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS(R) 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms--results of an open-label study. Phytother Res, 26, 1220-5.DOI:10.1002/ptr.3712
    • Panossian, A. & Wikman, G. (2010). Effects of Adaptogens on the Central Nervous
    • System and the Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Their Stress-Protective Activity. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 3, 188-224.DOI:10.3390/ph3010188 Brain Health Product Portfolio   15 October 2017
    • Spasov, A. A., Wikman, G. K., Mandrikov, V. B., Mironova, I. A. & Neumoin, V. V. (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine, 7, 85-9.DOI:10.1016/s0944-7113(00)80078-1
    • Shevtsov, V. A., Zholus, B. I., Shervarly, V. I., Vol'skij, V. B., Korovin, Y. P., Khristich, M. P., Roslyakova, N. A. & Wikman, G. (2003). A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine, 10, 95-105.DOI:10.1078/094471103321659780


    American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius) 

    American ginseng is a source of flavonoids called ginsenosides shown to improve working memory and mood in healthy individuals and also works as an adaptogen.

    Supporting literature for American Ginseng

    • Ossoukhova, A., Owen, L., Savage, K., Meyer, M., Ibarra, A., Roller, M., Pipingas, A., Wesnes, K. & Scholey, A. (2015). Improved working memory performance following administration of a single dose of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) to healthy middle-age adults. Hum Psychopharmacol, 30, 108-22.DOI:10.1002/hup. 2463
    • Scholey, A., Ossoukhova, A., Owen, L., Ibarra, A., Pipingas, A., He, K., Roller, M. & Stough, C. (2010). Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 212, 345-56.DOI:10.1007/ s00213-010-1964-y

    Restore

    The body is exposed to chemical by-products both internally and from the environment every day and needs to be able to process and eliminate them quickly and efficiently. 

    The body is normally well capable of doing this but occasionally, the body might require an additional boost of nutrients. This formula is a comprehensive nutritional and antioxidant formula designed to support the process of eliminating toxins, as well as liver function. Certain foods such as artichoke are natural sources of vitamins and minerals which can contribute to good liver function and other detox processes.


    Vitamin E

    Vitamin E functions physiologically as an antioxidant that prevents cell damage. It also carries the following EFSA health claim:

    • Supports the protection  of  body  cells  from  oxidative  damage  by  being  a  free radical scavenger

    Supporting literature for Vitamin E

    • Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin E and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 160, 162, 1947), maintenance of the normal function of the immune system (ID 161, 163), maintenance of norm. (2010). EFSA Journal, 8(10), p.1816.


    Vitamin C (Ascorbate with Bioflavonoids)

    Vitamin C is an essential vitamin, meaning it can’t be produced by the body. It acts as a strong antioxidant. It has been linked to other health benefits including reducing blood pressure, reducing heart disease risk, protecting against gout attacks, improving iron absorption, boosting immunity and reducing dementia risk.

    Vitamin C carries the following health claims:

    • Vitamin/mineral supplementation to reduce fatigue and tiredness in situations of inadequate micronutrient status
    • Contribution  to  normal  psychological functions
    • Contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism 
    • Maintenance of the normal function of the immune system 
    • Protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage

    Supporting literature for Vitamin C

    • Alessio, H., Goldfarb, A. and Cao, G. (1997). Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress before and after Vitamin C Supplementation. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 7(1), pp.1-9.
    • Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin C and reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 139, 2622), contribution to normal psychological functions (ID 140), regeneration of the reduced form of vitamin E (ID 202), contribu. (2010). EFSA Journal, 8(10), p.1815.


    Vitamin A (Beta Carotene)

    Vitamin A plays a vital role in maintaining your body’s natural defenses. This includes the mucous barriers in your eyes, lungs, gut and genitals which help trap bacteria and other infectious agents.

    Vitamin A also functions to support maintaining healthy vision, ensuring the normal function of your immune system and organs and aiding the proper growth and development of babies in the womb.

    Vitamin A health claims apply to foods and not supplements.

    Supporting literature for Vitamin A

    • Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin A (including β-carotene) and maintenance of normal vision (ID 4239, 4701), maintenance of normal skin and mucous membranes (ID 4660, 4702), and maintenance of normal hair (ID 466. (2010). EFSA Journal, 8(10), p.1754.
    • Stephensen, C. (2001). VITAMIN A, INFECTION AND IMMUNE FUNCTION*. Annual Review of Nutrition, 21(1), pp.167-192.


    Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin 5' phosphate)

    Vitamin B2 is an important member of the B vitamin family and also acts as an antioxidant within the body. Intake of B2 supports the protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage. It carries the following EFSA health claims:

    • Contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism 
    • Protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage 

    Supporting literature for Vitamin B2

    • Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to riboflavin (vitamin B2) and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism (ID 29, 35, 36, 42), contribution to normal metabolism of iron (ID 30, 37), maintenance of normal skin and m. (2010). EFSA Journal, 8(10), p.1814.


    Biotin

    An essential part of the B-vitamin group of eight water soluble vitamins that perform essential, closely inter-related roles in cellular functioning, mostly acting as co-enzymes in a vast array of catabolic and anabolic enzymatic reactions. Additionally, biotin carries the following relevant EFSA-approved health claims:

    • Contributes to normal functioning of the nervous system 
    • Contributes to normal psychological function

    Supporting literature for Biotin

    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2010). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to biotin and maintenance of normal skin and mucous membranes (ID 121), maintenance of normal hair (ID 121), maintenance of normal bone (ID 121), maintenance of normal teeth (ID 121), maintenance of normal nails (ID 121, 2877), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 119), contribution to normal psychological functions (ID 120) and contribution to normal macronutrient metabolism (ID 4661) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 8, 1728-n/a.DOI:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1728
    • Kennedy, D. O. (2016). B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy--A Review. Nutrients, 8, 68.DOI:10.3390/nu8020068


    Manganese (as Manganese Bisglycinate)

    Manganese is an essential heavy metal that is naturally found in the environment. Daily intake through dietary sources provides the necessary amount required for several key physiological processes, including antioxidant defence, energy metabolism, immune function and others. Manganese is essential for mitochondrial health, as well as for the effective function of enzymes essential to life of all cells, including neurones, such as manganese superoxide dismutase. Manganese has an EFSA approved health claim for contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism.

    Supporting literature for Manganese 

    • Chen, P., Chakraborty, S., Mukhopadhyay, S., Lee, E., Paoliello, M. M., Bowman, A. B. & Aschner, M. (2015). Manganese homeostasis in the nervous system. J Neurochem, 134, 601-10.DOI:10.1111/jnc.13170 
    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2010). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to manganese and reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 312), contribution to normal formation of connective tissue (ID 404) and contribution to normal energy yielding metabolism (ID 405) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 8, 1808-n/a.DOI:10.2903/j.efsa. 2010.1808
    • Smith, M. R., Fernandes, J., Go, Y. M. & Jones, D. P. (2017). Redox dynamics of manganese as a mitochondrial life-death switch. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 482, 388-398.DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.10.126


    Selenium (Selenomethionine)

    Selenium is an essential mineral, meaning it must be obtained through your diet. It acts as an important antioxidant protecting against free radicals and cell damage. It carries the following EFSA health claims:

    • Protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage
    • Maintenance of the normal function of the immune system

    Supporting literature for Selenium 

    • Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to selenium and maintenance of normal hair (ID 281), maintenance of normal nails (ID 281), protection against heavy metals (ID 383), maintenance of normal joints (ID 409), maintenance of no. (2010). EFSA Journal, 8(10), p.1727.


    Zinc (as Zinc Picolinate) 

    Zinc is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions in the body. It carries EFSA-approved claims for the maintenance of normal serum testosterone concentrations as well as a contributor to normal cognitive function. Adequate zinc levels are essential for stable mood. Recent studies have reported that zinc deficiency is seen in depression and psychosis. Additionally, zinc has been identified as a key nutrient for neuroplasticity and reinnervation of tissues, not only in the brain but around the body. Zinc picolinate seems to have a small advantage in terms of bioavailability with respect to a citrate, hence the inclusion of this form.

    Supporting literature for Zinc 

    • Barrie, S. A., Wright, J. V., Pizzorno, J. E., Kutter, E. & Barron, P. C. (1987). Comparative absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans. Agents Actions, 21, 223-8 
    • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. & Allergies (2009). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to zinc and function of the immune system (ID 291, 1757), DNA synthesis and cell division (ID 292, 1759), protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 294, 1758), maintenance of bone (ID 295, 1756), cognitive function (ID 296), fertility and reproduction (ID 297, 300), reproductive development (ID 298), muscle function (ID 299), metabolism of fatty acids (ID 302), maintenance of joints (ID 305), function of the heart and blood vessels (ID 306), prostate function (ID 307), thyroid function (ID 308), acid-base metabolism (ID 360), vitamin A metabolism (ID 361) and maintenance of vision (ID 361) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 7, 1229-n/a.DOI:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1229
    • Petrilli, M. A., Kranz, T. M., Kleinhaus, K., Joe, P., Getz, M., Johnson, P., Chao, M. V. & Malaspina, D. (2017). The Emerging Role for Zinc in Depression and Psychosis. Front Pharmacol, 8, 414.DOI:10.3389/fphar.2017.00414
    • Wiera, G. & Mozrzymas, J. W. (2015). Extracellular proteolysis in structural and functional plasticity of mossy fiber synapses in hippocampus. Front Cell Neurosci, 9, 427.DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00427


    Alpha-Lipoic Acid

    Alpha-lipoic acid is an organic compound that acts as a powerful antioxidant in the body. It’s made inside the mitochondria where it helps enzymes turn nutrients into energy.

    Supporting literature for Alpha-Lipoic Acid

    • Saboori, S., Falahi, E., Eslampour, E., Zeinali Khosroshahi, M. and Yousefi Rad, E. (2018). Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on C-reactive protein level: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 28(8), pp.779-786.


    N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)

    NAC is a supplement form of cysteine. NAC supports healthy levels of the most powerful antioxidant in your body, glutathione and plays a role in the detoxification process.

    Supporting literature for N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)

    • de Andrade, K., Moura, F., dos Santos, J., de Araújo, O., de Farias Santos, J. and Goulart, M. (2015). Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hepatic Diseases: Therapeutic Possibilities of N-Acetylcysteine. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(12), pp.30269-30308.


    Taurine (as L-Taurine) 

    Taurine, the most abundant, semi-essential, sulphur-containing amino acid, is known to lower blood pressure in hypertensive animals as well as humans. Taurine supplementation has also been found to effectively decrease delayed onset muscle soreness after high-intensity eccentric exercise in young healthy men. Taurine is a good all-round protective amino acid used traditionally for its ability to modulate mood, although it has much better evidence of promoting cardiovascular health by means of its antioxidant power.

    Supporting literature for L-Taurine 

    • Ra, S. G., Akazawa, N., Choi, Y., Matsubara, T., Oikawa, S., Kumagai, H., Tanahashi, K., Ohmori, H. & Maeda, S. (2015). Taurine supplementation reduces eccentric exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness in young men. Adv Exp Med Biol, 803, 765-72.DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-15126-7_61 
    • Sirdah, M. M. (2015). Protective and therapeutic effectiveness of taurine in diabetes mellitus: a rationale for antioxidant supplementation. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 9, 55-64.DOI:10.1016/j.dsx.2014.05.001
    • Sun, Q., Wang, B., Li, Y., Sun, F., Li, P., Xia, W., Zhou, X., Li, Q., Wang, X., Chen, J., Zeng, X., Zhao, Z., He, H., Liu, D. & Zhu, Z. (2016). Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Hypertension, 67, 541-9.DOI:10.1161/ hypertensionaha.115.06624


    Artichoke

    Artichoke is a thistle known for its alleged health benefits which include lowering blood sugar levels and improving digestion, heart health, liver health and increasing bile.

    Supporting literature for Artichoke

    • Salem, M., Affes, H., Ksouda, K., Dhouibi, R., Sahnoun, Z., Hammami, S. and Zeghal, K. (2015). Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 70(4), pp.441-453.

      Rebalance

      Ingredients (per 1 capsule)
      Quantity
      RDA %
      Curcumin
      190mg
      n/a
      5-HTP (from Griffonia Seed Extract)
      100mg
      n/a
      Vitamin B3 (Nicotinamide)
      50mg
      313%
      Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal Phosphate)
      10mg
      714%
      Black Pepper Extract
      2.5mg
      n/a
      Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)
      25mcg
      500%

      Reboot

      Ingredients (per 1 capsule)
      Quantity
      RDA %
      L-Tyrosine
      400mg
      n/a
      Vitamin B5 (Calcium Pantothenate)
      150mg
      2,500%
      Folate (5-Methyletetrahydrate)
      400mcg
      200%
      Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin)
      400mcg
      16,000%
      Iodine (Potassium Iodide)
      100mcg
      67%

      Release

      Ingredients (per 1 capsule)
      Quantity
      RDA %
      Magnesium Bisglycinate
      112mg
      313%
      American Ginseng Extract (4:1)
      100mg eq.
      n/a
      Ashwagandha Root Extract (10:1)
      100mg eq.
      n/a
      Rhodiola Rosea Extract (15:1)
      50mg eq.
      n/a

      Restore

      Ingredients (per 2 capsules)
      Quantity
      RDA %
      Vitamin C (Sodium Ascorbate)
      500mg
      625%
      Alpha Lipoic Acid
      200mg
      n/a
      N-Acetyl L-Cysteine
      200mg
      n/a
      L-Taurine
      100mg
      n/a
      Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol Succinate)
      50mg
      417%
      Artichoke Extract (5:1)
      50mg eq.
      n/a
      Zinc (Picolinate)
      10mg
      100%
      Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin Phosphate)
      7mg
      500%
      Beta-Carotene
      3.75mg
      n/a
      Manganese Bisglycinate
      3mg
      150%
      Biotin
      500mcg
      1,000%
      Selenium (as L-Selenomethionine)
      10mcg
      182%